Supportive treatment in emergencies

 A)Kee the airway patent:-

  1. Optimize the airway position to force the flaccid tongue forward and to maximize the airway opening by place the neck and head in the ” sniffing ” position or apply the ” jaw thrust ” or place the patient in a head_down , left_sided position.
  2. If the airway is still not patent , examine the oropharynx and remove any obstruction or secretions by suction or by a sweep with the gloved finger.
  3. The airway can also be maintained with artificial airway devices.

B) breathing ( O2 therapy):-

  1. Simple facemask.
  2. Nasal cannula.
  3. Mechanical ventilation.

C) circulation:-

  1. Check blood pressure, pulse rate and rhythm.
  2. Secure venous access.
  3. ECG monitoring.
  4. Give saline in hypotensive patients.
  5. Give antihypertensive agents in hypertensive patients.

D) CNS manifestations :-

Could be coma or convulsions.

  1. In case of coma:- give dextrose , thiamine or naloxone.
  2. In case of convulsions:- give diazepam , followed by phenobarbital.
  3. Anticonvulsants can cause hypotension, cardiac arrest or respiratory arrest if administered too rapidly.

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