Staphyloma is bulging of the outer coat of the eye ( corneal and sclera ) which is lined by the uveal tissue.
- Weak outer coat of the eye due to ocular diseases ( as in perforated corneal ulcer or high axial myopia).
- Increased intraocular pressure ( in cases of absolute glaucoma).
A) anterior staphyloma:-
Known to be ectatic corneal scar + adherent Iris.
- Large corneal perforation ( leading to Iris prolapse).
- The Iris soon covered by fibrin ( leading to fibrous tissue formation).
- The weak scar can’t withstand the increased IOP due to closure of the angle by the Iris , forming ectasia.
Anterior staphyloma should be differentiated from keratectasia.
Known as ectatic sclera lined by uveal tissue.
- Rupture globe.
- Absolute glaucoma.
- Progressive myopia.
Types of scleral staphyloma:-
- Equatorial : lined by choroid.
- Ciliary : lined by ciliary body.
- Intercalary : lined by the root of the Iris.
- Posterior : occur at the posterior pole of the eye , it occurs only in high myopia.
Treatment of scleral staphyloma is by treating the cause.